Virtualization - Cloud

Month: August 2017

Hyper-V BIN file removal to retain storage space

The files used by Hyper-V VM are as below: In short, to explain:

  • .XML : This file  contain VM configuration details
  • .VHD and .VHDX: These files are virtual disks that hold the current virtual disk data, including partitions and file systems.
  • .BIN : This file contains the memory of a virtual machine or snapshot that is in a saved state
  • .VSV: This file contains VM’s saved state.
  • .AVHD and .AVHDX: These files are differencing virtual disks, commonly used for snapshots and Hyper-V checkpoints

The BIN file created in the virtual machine folder of the virtual machine is equal to the size of the memory of the virtual machine and is a placeholder to save the virtual machine state in the event that the Hyper-V host shut down.

The BIN file contains the memory of a VM and is located inside the GUID folder. If the VM in powered off state, there will be no BIN file present. This file is the equal to the size of the VM’s memory provisioning in Hyper-V Manger.

In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 – starting a virtual machine would result in Hyper-V creating a .BIN file which matched the size of the memory assigned to the virtual machine.  Microsoft did this to ensure that we always had enough disk space available to create a saved state (which is particularly critical if the physical computer is shutting down – and the virtual machine is configure to save state when the physical computer shuts down).

The BIN file is simply idle while the virtual machine is powered on; it is pre-allocated so that its space is guaranteed to be available if needed and for quicker response to a save action. However – many people did not like to see their disk space being “wasted” like this.., as BIN file is idle during running state.

To address this, since Windows “2012” Microsoft made a simple change: Hyper-V only pre-create the .BIN file if you choose “Save the virtual machine state” as the Automatic Stop Action for the virtual machine.  If you choose “Turn off the virtual machine or Shut down the guest operating system”, BIN file will not create with equal size of RAM.

It is still possible to save the state manually as long as there is enough room for the file. Above Automatic Stop Action setting in only applicable when Physical computer shutdown.

By default, all virtual machines have an Automatic Stop Action of Save, which means the state of the virtual machine saved to disk. However, the best practice is once Integration Services are enabled the Automatic Stop Action should be changed to “Shut down the guest operating system”, which performs a clean shutdown and no longer needs the BIN file to save the memory content to.


  • Keeping BIN file is not recommended in a cluster environment as VM’s were configured in High Availability, in case of Physical computer shutdown, VM will failover to another anode hence there is no advantage of keeping BIN file.
  • Consider choosing BIN file if Hyper-v Servers are not in cluster (standalone) and no constraints with storage space.
  • VM move into saved state only when Hyper-v Host is gracefully shutdown and VM will not move to save state in case Hyper-v host is unexpected shutdown/restart.
  • Microsoft do not recommends keeping VM in saved state for the applications like Domain Controllers, Database, etc. Hence, change Automatic Stop Action to “Shut down” from “Save state” as per MS recommendations

 Steps to save storage space by removing BIN File

  • VM need to be powered off
  • Go to VM Settings ->Automatic Stop Action -> Change the Option from “Save the virtual Machine state” to “Shut down the guest operating system”
  • Power on VM
  • Execute similar steps for each VM4

Above feature succesfully implemented at  multiple customer environments which intern benefied customerin reclaiming Terabyte storage space





Local Host Cache Reintroduction– Long Awaited Feature

Local Host Cache (LHC) & Evolution

Local Host Cache was a core feature of the Independent Management Architecture (IMA) that was introduced with Citrix Metaframe XP 1.0 in 2001, and was still used until Citrix XenApp 6.5 and now reintroduced in XenApp/Desktop 7.12

Technically, the LHC is a simple Access database where it stores a subset of the data store in each Presentation (XenApp) server. The IMA service running on each Presentation(XenApp) Server downloads the information for every 30 mins or whenever a configuration change is made in farm.

LHC primary functions are permits a server to function in the absence of a connection to the data store & improves performance by caching information of applications.

LHC contain the information of servers, published applications, Domain & Licensing. LHC evolved a lot over the years and allowed SQL downtimes for an indefinite period in its last release with XenApp 6.5.

If the data store is unreachable, the LHC contains enough information about the farm to allow normal operations for an indefinite period, if necessary. However, no new static information can be published, or added to the farm, until the farm data store is reachable and operational again.

The disappearance of LHC

With the release of the awful version 7.0 of XenApp in 2013 and the move to XenDesktop FlexCast Management Architecture (FMA), Citrix decided to remove the Local Host Cache feature–and many others–without offering any other alternative. To be fair, Citrix converged XenApp into XenDesktop, which was already using the FMA design since the version 5 and without Local Cache Host equivalent.  This decision immediately made the SQL infrastructure a critical piece of any XenApp implementation. Any downtime on the SQL infrastructure would immediately cause a downtime for new sessions on the XenApp infrastructure as well. It could also have some side effects with the old Citrix Web Interface.

Citrix recommends having a highly available SQL infrastructure to host XenApp and XenDesktop databases. While you can successfully implement HA for your SQL infrastructure, it does not necessarily mean that you will avoid downtimes, as many components are to be considered.

The pseudo rebirth of LHC with Connection Leasing (CL)

Facing a storm of complaints, Citrix also started–finally!–to listen to its customers and released XenDesktop 7.6 in Sept 2014 with the Connection Leasing (CL) feature enabled by default.

Unfortunately, CL was not full replacement of LHC and it is alternative option provided in placement of LHC, limited to frequently used and assigned applications/desktops (up to 2 weeks by default). For users not using Citrix frequently or using pooled desktops, CL is completely useless and did not resolve anything. There are also many limitations: load management, workspace control, power actions are not supported.

The reintroduction of LHC

Citrix came up with a milestone achievement with its new idea as part of the XenDesktop 7.12 release in Dec 2016. This time, they claimed to bring back all the Local Host Cache (LHC) features from XenApp 6.5, even adding few improvements to make it more reliable. LHC feature is offered for Cloud and On Premises implementations along Connection Leasing in 7.12, but is considered the primary mechanism to allow connection-brokering operations when database connectivity to the site database is disrupted. Surprisingly, Local Host Cache feature is disabled by default. Let us expect Citrix to enable that feature by default in the next version.

When installing XenDesktop 7.12 and up, a SQL Express instance(Local DB) will be installed locally on each Delivery Controller to store the Local Host Cache. Config Synchronizer Service (CSS) takes care of the synchronization between the remote database and the Local Host Cache (Local DB). The Secondary Brokering Service (Citrix High Availability Service) takes over from the Principal Broker when an outage is detected and does all registration and brokering operations.

There are many limitations to consider with this version of LHC

  • Local DB, which is a runtime version of SQL Server with a specific licensing that limits the usage of four cores.
  • No support for Pooled desktops, which is a huge downside.
  • No change can be made to the farm (assignments, publications, power actions, etc.), you cannot even open the consoles (Director & Studio) and PowerShell
  • No control over the LHC election process and only a single Delivery Controller will take care of all VDA registrations and broker sessions for the whole zone during an outage which limits  5,000 VDAs per zone (not enforced)
  • Most importantly, it is only a one-way communication between the LHC and the remote SQL database
  • New version of the Local Host Cache would not assure you zero downtime. There is also a delay before users can actually connect .When the remote database goes down, VDAs still have to re-register to the newly and ONLY elected Delivered Controller. It can result in users not having icons in StoreFront or users not able to start new sessions for a short period.

In conclusion, it took Citrix almost 4 years to deliver a somewhat equivalent of the good old Local Host Cache for XenDesktop 7.x. The database is not a single point of failure anymore in a XenDesktop/XenApp deployment. However, customers with large deployments are not supported with this version of the Local Host Cache and some of the -HUGE- limitations can discourage you from using that feature



© 2024 Tech Blog

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑