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Category: Azure (Page 2 of 2)

Difference between Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), Azure Active Directory(Azure AD) and Azure Active Directory Domain Services (Azure AD DS)

To provide applications, services, or devices access to a central identity, there are three common ways to use Active Directory-based services in Azure. This choice in identity solutions gives you the flexibility to use the most appropriate directory for your organization’s needs. For example, if you mostly manage cloud-only users that run mobile devices, it may not make sense to build and run your own Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) identity solution. Instead, you could just use Azure Active Directory.

Although the three Active Directory-based identity solutions share a common name and technology, they’re designed to provide services that meet different customer demands. At high level, these identity solutions and feature sets are:

Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) 

Enterprise-ready lightweight directory access protocol (LDAP) server that provides key features such as identity and authentication, computer object management, group policy, and trusts.

AD DS is a central component in many organizations with an on-premises IT environment, and provides core user account authentication and computer management features.

For more information, see Active Directory Domain Services overview in the Windows Server documentation.

The Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), is the traditional on-premises version of domain services provided by AD. Organizations use AD DS to centrally manage all their resource objects, such as users, computers, printers, shared folders, groups, organizational units (OUs), etc. These objects are part of the Active Directory domain, which allows the administrators to securely manage them through Group Policies. Some of the key features offered by AD DS includes:

  1. One-premises identity & authentication
  2. User and computer management
  3. Group Policies
  4. Domain trusts

AD DS is managed by the organizations on-premises. The Enterprise Administrators are responsible for managing AD DS domain controllers, AD sites, trust relationships between the domains, Group Policies, backing up and restoring AD DS, etc.

NOTE: In this article, the terms traditional AD and traditional AD DS, refer to the on-premises deployment of Active Directory and Active Directory Domain Services.

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD)

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is the Azure solution for identity and access management. Azure AD is a multitenant, cloud-based directory and identity management service from Microsoft. It combines core directory services, application access management, and identity protection into a single solution.

Cloud-based identity and mobile device management that provides user account and authentication services for resources such as Office 365, the Azure portal, or SaaS applications.Azure AD can be synchronized with an on-premises AD DS environment to provide a single identity to users that works natively in the cloud.

Azure AD offers some of the same features in the cloud, as AD DS offers on-premises. However, just because they both have AD in their names, doesn’t mean they are identical services. Azure AD is a cloud-based identity service that offers the following:

  1. Cloud-based identification & authentication
  2. User and computer management
  3. Mobile Device Management (MDM)
  4. Access to Software as a service (SaaS) applications, Microsoft Azure portal, and Office 365 services

Because Azure AD is hosted and managed by Microsoft in the cloud, organizations don’t have direct access to AD domain controllers the way they do in their on-premises environment. Microsoft exposes parts of the Azure AD to organizations through the web-based interface so they have enough control to run and customize the services, but Microsoft is responsible for managing the services and servers behind the scenes in its datacenters across the globe.

Azure Active Directory Domain Services (Azure AD DS) 

Provides managed domain services with a subset of fully-compatible traditional AD DS features such as domain join, group policy, LDAP, and Kerberos / NTLM authentication.

Azure AD DS integrates with Azure AD, which itself can synchronize with an on-premises AD DS environment. This ability extends central identity use cases to traditional web applications that run in Azure as part of a lift-and-shift strategy.

The Azure AD DS is a managed AD DS service in the cloud. In other words, if you want the traditional AD DS running in the cloud, you can take advantage of the Azure AD DS service by running AD DS under Azure AD. This means that you will be able to use traditional AD DS features, such as Kerberos and NTLM authentication, Group Policies (which aren’t supported in Azure AD), LDAP, etc.

For organizations who are interested in running traditional AD DS services in the cloud, Microsoft offers a couple of methods. You can either use a managed domain or a self-managed domain. Here’s the difference.

Managed Domain

managed domain is something that you will create in the cloud using AD DS and Microsoft will create and manage the associated resources as necessary.

Self-Managed Domain

self-managed domain is an AD DS environment that you can create in the cloud using the traditional tools. For example, you will use Virtual Machines (VMs) to install the AD DS domain controllers, member servers, etc. This is a self-managed domain so you (not Microsoft) will be responsible for managing the domain just like you do in your on-premises environment.

With Azure AD DS, the core service components are deployed and maintained for you by Microsoft as a managed domain experience. You don’t deploy, manage, patch, and secure the AD DS infrastructure for components like the VMs, Windows Server OS, or domain controllers (DCs).

Azure AD DS provides a smaller subset of features to traditional self-managed AD DS environment, which reduces some of the design and management complexity. For example, there’s no AD forests, domain, sites, and replication links to design and maintain. For applications and services that run in the cloud and need access to traditional authentication mechanisms such as Kerberos or NTLM, Azure AD DS provides a managed domain experience with the minimal amount of administrative overhead.

When you deploy and run a self-managed AD DS environment, you have to maintain all of the associated infrastructure and directory components. There’s additional maintenance overhead with a self-managed AD DS environment, but you’re then able to do additional tasks such as extend the schema or create forest trusts.

Azure AD DS and Azure AD

Azure AD lets you manage the identity of devices used by the organization and control access to corporate resources from those devices. Users can also register their personal device (a bring-your-own (BYO) model) with Azure AD, which provides the device with an identity. Azure AD then authenticates the device when a user signs in to Azure AD and uses the device to access secured resources. The device can be managed using Mobile Device Management (MDM) software like Microsoft Intune. This management ability lets you restrict access to sensitive resources to managed and policy-compliant devices.

Traditional computers and laptops can also join to Azure AD. This mechanism offers the same benefits of registering a personal device with Azure AD, such as to allow users to sign in to the device using their corporate credentials.

Azure AD joined devices give you the following benefits:

  • Single-sign-on (SSO) to applications secured by Azure AD.
  • Enterprise policy-compliant roaming of user settings across devices.
  • Access to the Windows Store for Business using corporate credentials.
  • Windows Hello for Business.
  • Restricted access to apps and resources from devices compliant with corporate policy.

On an Azure AD-joined or registered device, user authentication happens using modern OAuth / OpenID Connect based protocols. These protocols are designed to work over the internet, so are great for mobile scenarios where users access corporate resources from anywhere.

With Azure AD DS-joined devices, applications can use the Kerberos and NTLM protocols for authentication, so can support legacy applications migrated to run on Azure VMs as part of a lift-and-shift strategy

AspectAzure AD-joinedAzure AD DS-joined
Device controlled byAzure ADAzure AD DS managed domain
Representation in the directoryDevice objects in the Azure AD directoryComputer objects in the Azure AD DS managed domain
AuthenticationOAuth / OpenID Connect based protocolsKerberos and NTLM protocols
ManagementMobile Device Management (MDM) software like IntuneGroup Policy
NetworkingWorks over the internetMust be connected to, or peered with, the virtual network where the managed domain is deployed
Great for…End-user mobile or desktop devicesServer VMs deployed in Azure
FeatureAzure AD DSSelf-managed AD DS
Managed service
Secure deploymentsAdministrator secures the deployment
DNS server (managed service)
Domain or Enterprise administrator privileges
Domain join
Domain authentication using NTLM and Kerberos
Kerberos constrained delegationResource-basedResource-based & account-based
Custom OU structure
Group Policy
Schema extensions
AD domain / forest trusts (one-way outbound forest trusts only)
Secure LDAP (LDAPS)
LDAP read
LDAP write (within the managed domain)
Geo-distributed deployments

Ref: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory-domain-services/compare-identity-solutions

Create Azure RBAC for Admins to manage Windows Virtual Desktop

Most of us have years of experience with Active Directory and delegating rights to Administrators that control the environment. Some enterprises don’t grant Domain Admin rights to all the Administrators.  How does one set up just the right amount of access in Azure for Admins to manage the WVD Spring release?

To answer this question, I started with Role Base Access Control (RBAC). In this scenario, the Administrators will have the Contributor role on the Azure subscription, and the Admin should have the ability to manage other users’ permissions both in Azure and WVD.

Azure uses RBAC to manage resources. A role is a group of permissions.

Azure has many built-in roles; some of the main are Owner, Contributor, and Reader. See here for a list of built-in roles. You can also use PowerShell to get a list with the command: Get-AzRoleDefinition | FT Name,Description

The Owner role has full access to everything, including the ability to delegating access to users.  The Contributor role has the permissions to create and manage resources, even create a new tenant but, cannot delegate access to users. The Reader role can view all but make now changes.

If the Administrator has Owner, the person would have full access to manage all resources, but we don’t want that for our Administrator in this case. We know the Administrator has the Contributor role. However, that means the Administrator does not have the right to delegate access to users. The Administrator will need the ability to add and remove users/groups to WVD.

There are multiple ways to solve this; you can grant the Administrator rights on the individual resource groups.

You can add a custom role. If you are more comfortable with the GUI, select Subscriptions, Access control (IAM), Add custom role.

To make it easier, you can choose to clone a role as a starting point.

The predefined permissions already defined will give you a good starting point.

However, to accomplish the requirements, it will need to be adjusted.

You can add permissions and exclude permissions from the above page, but there are limitations. The better method would be to edit the JSON.

Below is a JSON example:

{
“properties”: {
“roleName”: “Custom_Admins”,
“description”: “Custom Role to allow contribution and access control”,
“assignableScopes”: [
“/subscriptions/subscriptionID”
],
“permissions”: [
{
“actions”: [
“Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments/delete”,
“Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments/write”,
“Microsoft.DesktopVirtualization/*”
],
“notActions”: [
“Microsoft.Blueprint/blueprintAssignments/write”,
“Microsoft.Blueprint/blueprintAssignments/delete”,
],
“dataActions”: [],
“notDataActions”: []
}
]
}
}

For a list of operations see here

To use the PowerShell to create the custom role using a json file:

New-AzRoleDefinition –InputFile “C:\CustomRoles.json”

This solution is granular and most secure, but it will involve some research and knowledge of JSON. If you are new to Azure, this can be challenging.

So, for this use case since the granular security is not a requirement, the Administrator will be granted two built-in roles that allow for the access needed, not just for WVD but Azure as well.

Windows Virtual Desktop (WVD) Reference Architectures

Below are Azure Windows Virtual Desktop (WVD) Reference conceptual architectures.

WVD Reference Architecture’s -ARM

Reference Architecture -Classic (Non-ARM)

Reference Architecture -Classic (Non-ARM)

Reference Architecture -Classic (Non-ARM)

Reference Architecture -Classic (Non-ARM)

Reference Architecture -Classic (Non-ARM)

Azure AD/Accounts/Tenants/Subscriptions

This post aims to add some sense to the whole Azure account, subscription, tenant, directory layout as well as Azure AD (Azure Active Directory) across both ASM (Classic) and ARM. I will discuss the different administrator roles from an ASM (Azure Service Management) perspective and then take a look at the new changed/updated administrator roles with ARM (Azure Resource Manager).

Access control in Azure starts from a billing perspective. The actual owner of an Azure account – accessed by visiting the Azure Accounts Center – is the Account Administrator (AA). Subscriptions are a container for billing, but they also act as a security boundary. No matter ASM or ARM, every Azure subscription has a trust relationship with at least one Azure AD instance. This means that a subscription trusts that directory to authenticate users, services, and devices. Multiple Azure subscriptions can trust the same directory, but a subscription trusts only one directory.

As for the directory, the directory that Azure uses is Azure AD. Azure AD is a separate service on its own which sits by itself and is used by all of Azure (ASM & ARM) and also Office 365. Even though there is one Azure AD, there are two subscription/authentication modes of Azure.

If you signed up to Azure using a Microsoft account, then you will get Azure with a Default Directory which you can see in the classic portal.

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This Default Directory is just like normal Azure AD, however you can’t add anyone to any ASM/ARM Azure administrator role picked from this Default Directory itself, you can only add people to ASM/ARM Azure administrator roles using their Microsoft Accounts.

The opposite to this, if you signed up to Azure using the alternative methods then you can add people to ASM/ARM Azure administrator roles using both their Microsoft Accounts and/or Organisational Accounts. Until recently, you could only sign up for a new Microsoft Azure subscription using your Microsoft account (Windows Live ID). Azure now supports using either of the following two account methods to sign up: Microsoft Accounts or Work or school accounts, see https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/sign-up-organization/

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However if you do have the limited Default Directory, you can create a new Azure AD directory under the subscription, then you can change the default directory in which the Azure subscription uses. This will then allow you to add both Work/School and Microsoft Accounts. How? See https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/kb/2969548

There are separate roles for Azure AD as follows, remember these have nothing to do with Azure itself. The following are the different Directory Administrator roles.

  • Global Administrator
  • Billing Administrator
  • Service Administrator
  • User Administrator
  • Password Administrator

Then there’s Azure itself. With Azure there’s the subscription to Azure itself which is more of a billing thing, this is where Azure based roles come in.

The Azure based roles are slightly different considering what Azure platform you are using, whether ASM(Azure Service Management (Classic)) or ARM (Azure Resource Management).

ASM (Azure Service Management (Classic))

Remember, depending on how you signed up with Azure, you can add both Organisational Accounts to these roles as well as Microsoft Accounts, or just Microsoft Accounts.

  • Account Administrator
  • Service Administrator
  • Co-Administrator

Each subscription has a Service Administrator (SA) who can add, remove, and modify Azure resources in that subscription. The default SA of a new subscription is the AA, but the AA can change the SA in the Azure Accounts Center.

Subscriptions have an association with a directory. The directory defines a set of users. These can be users from the work or school that created the directory or they can be external users e.g. Microsoft Accounts. Subscriptions are accessible by a subset of those directory users who have been assigned as either Service Administrator (SA) or Co-Administrator (CA); the only exception is that, for legacy reasons, Microsoft Accounts (formerly Windows Live ID) can be assigned as SA or CA without being present in the directory.

Azure Subscription Layout

This diagram takes a step above the Azure Account / Tenant level into the Enterprise EA level just so you can see the overall perspective from the entire hierarchy. However, many of you would be setup with Azure in the middle (account) level by possibly using a credit card or other type of licensing. Or some might be setup with the bottom level only in the case of CSP licensing.

Here’s the reference URLs I got the information from:

How Azure subscriptions are associated with Azure Active Directory
Understanding resource access in Azure

ARM (Azure Resource Management)

How does the above ASM based Classic roles tie in with Azure Resource Manager roles? Remember, Azure AD remains the same with the same Directory Administrator roles, the difference being the different administrator roles on the Azure ARM platform.

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The built-in core roles are as follows and have no affiliation or access to ASM:

Owner: Let’s you manage everything, including access to resources

  • Closest ASM match: Service Administrator

Contributor: Let’s you manage everything except access to resources

  • Closest ASM match: Co-Administrator

Reader: Let’s you view everything, but not make any changes

AzureARMroles

Azure Enterprise Enrolment – Hierarchy

The Enrolment

Managed using http://ea.azure.com

At the very top-level from a licensing perspective, you can have multiple Azure Enrolments, here you can select the enrolment you want to work with. You need to be an Enterprise Administrator to access this. There can be an unlimited number of Enterprise Administrators.

Azure Enrollment

The other thing you need to do is change the Enrollment Authentication Level to ‘Mixed Account‘ so that you have the ability to add both Microsoft Accounts and/or Work or School accounts as Account Administrators.

Azure EA Auth Level
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The Department

Also managed using http://ea.azure.com

Once you select the Enrolment you are working with, you then select ‘Department‘ at the top. This is where you can see all the departments in which you are the Department Administrator for and you can setup more departments which can be setup as a logical segmentation of a company or application.

The Department

The Account

The Account

To save some confusion, this part is not a generic account (like what a department and subscription is), but more so an individual account for a person, who will ultimately become the Azure Account Administrator. The AA can manage and setup Azure subscriptions, at which point will also become – by default – the Service Administrator for the subscription as well at the time of subscription creation.

Notice, this part is managed using two portals.

You will use http://ea.azure.com only to first setup the Account Administrator under the relevant department, whether it be a Microsoft Account or a Work/School (Organisational) account, this is where you do it.

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At this stage, once you add in the account, it can take up to 24 hours for it to actually add itself in and will sit at ‘pending‘ for a while.

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Once it goes through and gets setup, the email you used when adding the Azure account administrator, that person will get an email to acknowledge being added as an Azure account administrator with a link to logon to the Azure Account portal.

20181017-azure-account-administrator-addition.png

You can speed up the process, if you get the new Azure account administrator to logon to http://ea.azure.com with their account, it will ask them to confirm – with a warning. If the new Azure account administrator has other subscriptions anywhere else e.g. Pay-As-You-Go, then these will all get transferred to under the EA at this time including all billing for the Azure subscription, so be careful!!! If the new Azure account administrator doesn’t manage any Azure subscriptions, then you don’t really need to worry about the warning.

Please note: at this point, even through that adding a work/school account from an Azure AD directory is an option, the ‘directory‘ doesn’t have to have any affiliation with the EA, nor does the Microsoft Account. In saying this, you can use an account from a new Azure AD directory, or an existing Azure AD directory, e.g. if you are using Office 365 and AD Connect to sync on-prem accounts to Azure AD, you can use any of these accounts.

Once the account has been completed being setup, the Account Administrator will get an email.

The Subscription

All Azure subscriptions can then be created and managed by the Account Administrator and this is all done by using the Azure Account portal  http://account.windowsazure.com  then by clicking on ‘Account‘ at the top.

Azure Account

From here you will notice you have the option of adding a new subscription.

Or, you can edit an existing subscription. If you click on an existing subscription, by default all Azure Enterprise based subscriptions are named ‘Microsoft Azure Enterprise‘. You have the option to ‘Edit Subscription Details‘.

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Here you can rename the Azure subscription or rename the Azure subscription in the Azure portal. Also under ‘Edit Subscription Details‘ you change the Service Administrator to someone else. Remember that with all new Azure subscriptions which are created by the Account Administrator, Azure stamps the Account Administrator as the Service Administrator by default, this is where you change that.

The Azure Hierarchy

And this is the whole thing visually.

Enterprise Enrollment Hierarchy

A few pointers:

As long as you remember that an Azure directory (also referred to as AAD/Tenant) is totally separate to the Azure subscription.

Imagine you wanted to transfer an Azure Subscription from PAYG to an EA while keeping the existing directory.

  • You would follow this article, tick Retain this subscription within my Azure AD – however the account owner you are transferring it to, this person would need to exist in the current tenant attached to the incoming subscription otherwise they would get another error The requester has specified that the subscription be retained within their organization. Please contact the requester and ask them to either update their request or add you to their organisation….

Imagine you had your EA set to Microsoft Account mode and you wanted to add a new Accountwhich was a Work or School account.

  • You would get an error like this: The login information provided is not a valid user. If you believe you have received this message in error, please contact customer support. Simply change the EA to be set for Work or School Account Cross Tenant authentication. If you have Microsoft accounts already setup as other account owners, this won’t break these accounts.
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