This post aims to add some sense to the whole Azure account, subscription, tenant, directory layout as well as Azure AD (Azure Active Directory) across both ASM (Classic) and ARM. I will discuss the different administrator roles from an ASM (Azure Service Management) perspective and then take a look at the new changed/updated administrator roles with ARM (Azure Resource Manager).
Access control in Azure starts from a billing perspective. The actual owner of an Azure account – accessed by visiting the Azure Accounts Center – is the Account Administrator (AA). Subscriptions are a container for billing, but they also act as a security boundary. No matter ASM or ARM, every Azure subscription has a trust relationship with at least one Azure AD instance. This means that a subscription trusts that directory to authenticate users, services, and devices. Multiple Azure subscriptions can trust the same directory, but a subscription trusts only one directory.
As for the directory, the directory that Azure uses is Azure AD. Azure AD is a separate service on its own which sits by itself and is used by all of Azure (ASM & ARM) and also Office 365. Even though there is one Azure AD, there are two subscription/authentication modes of Azure.
If you signed up to Azure using a Microsoft account, then you will get Azure with a Default Directory which you can see in the classic portal.
This Default Directory is just like normal Azure AD, however you can’t add anyone to any ASM/ARM Azure administrator role picked from this Default Directory itself, you can only add people to ASM/ARM Azure administrator roles using their Microsoft Accounts.
The opposite to this, if you signed up to Azure using the alternative methods then you can add people to ASM/ARM Azure administrator roles using both their Microsoft Accounts and/or Organisational Accounts. Until recently, you could only sign up for a new Microsoft Azure subscription using your Microsoft account (Windows Live ID). Azure now supports using either of the following two account methods to sign up: Microsoft Accounts or Work or school accounts, see https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/sign-up-organization/
However if you do have the limited Default Directory, you can create a new Azure AD directory under the subscription, then you can change the default directory in which the Azure subscription uses. This will then allow you to add both Work/School and Microsoft Accounts. How? See https://support.microsoft.com/en-au/kb/2969548
There are separate roles for Azure AD as follows, remember these have nothing to do with Azure itself. The following are the different Directory Administrator roles.
Then there’s Azure itself. With Azure there’s the subscription to Azure itself which is more of a billing thing, this is where Azure based roles come in.
The Azure based roles are slightly different considering what Azure platform you are using, whether ASM(Azure Service Management (Classic)) or ARM (Azure Resource Management).
ASM (Azure Service Management (Classic))
Remember, depending on how you signed up with Azure, you can add both Organisational Accounts to these roles as well as Microsoft Accounts, or just Microsoft Accounts.
Each subscription has a Service Administrator (SA) who can add, remove, and modify Azure resources in that subscription. The default SA of a new subscription is the AA, but the AA can change the SA in the Azure Accounts Center.
Subscriptions have an association with a directory. The directory defines a set of users. These can be users from the work or school that created the directory or they can be external users e.g. Microsoft Accounts. Subscriptions are accessible by a subset of those directory users who have been assigned as either Service Administrator (SA) or Co-Administrator (CA); the only exception is that, for legacy reasons, Microsoft Accounts (formerly Windows Live ID) can be assigned as SA or CA without being present in the directory.
This diagram takes a step above the Azure Account / Tenant level into the Enterprise EA level just so you can see the overall perspective from the entire hierarchy. However, many of you would be setup with Azure in the middle (account) level by possibly using a credit card or other type of licensing. Or some might be setup with the bottom level only in the case of CSP licensing.
Here’s the reference URLs I got the information from:
How does the above ASM based Classic roles tie in with Azure Resource Manager roles? Remember, Azure AD remains the same with the same Directory Administrator roles, the difference being the different administrator roles on the Azure ARM platform.
The built-in core roles are as follows and have no affiliation or access to ASM:
Owner: Let’s you manage everything, including access to resources
Closest ASM match: Service Administrator
Contributor: Let’s you manage everything except access to resources
Closest ASM match: Co-Administrator
Reader: Let’s you view everything, but not make any changes
At the very top-level from a licensing perspective, you can have multiple Azure Enrolments, here you can select the enrolment you want to work with. You need to be an Enterprise Administrator to access this. There can be an unlimited number of Enterprise Administrators.
The other thing you need to do is change the Enrollment Authentication Level to ‘Mixed Account‘ so that you have the ability to add both Microsoft Accounts and/or Work or School accounts as Account Administrators.
Once you select the Enrolment you are working with, you then select ‘Department‘ at the top. This is where you can see all the departments in which you are the Department Administrator for and you can setup more departments which can be setup as a logical segmentation of a company or application.
To save some confusion, this part is not a generic account (like what a department and subscription is), but more so an individual account for a person, who will ultimately become the Azure Account Administrator. The AA can manage and setup Azure subscriptions, at which point will also become – by default – the Service Administrator for the subscription as well at the time of subscription creation.
Notice, this part is managed using two portals.
You will use http://ea.azure.com only to first setup the Account Administrator under the relevant department, whether it be a Microsoft Account or a Work/School (Organisational) account, this is where you do it.
At this stage, once you add in the account, it can take up to 24 hours for it to actually add itself in and will sit at ‘pending‘ for a while.
Once it goes through and gets setup, the email you used when adding the Azure account administrator, that person will get an email to acknowledge being added as an Azure account administrator with a link to logon to the Azure Account portal.
You can speed up the process, if you get the new Azure account administrator to logon to http://ea.azure.com with their account, it will ask them to confirm – with a warning. If the new Azure account administrator has other subscriptions anywhere else e.g. Pay-As-You-Go, then these will all get transferred to under the EA at this time including all billing for the Azure subscription, so be careful!!! If the new Azure account administrator doesn’t manage any Azure subscriptions, then you don’t really need to worry about the warning.
Please note: at this point, even through that adding a work/school account from an Azure AD directory is an option, the ‘directory‘ doesn’t have to have any affiliation with the EA, nor does the Microsoft Account. In saying this, you can use an account from a new Azure AD directory, or an existing Azure AD directory, e.g. if you are using Office 365 and AD Connect to sync on-prem accounts to Azure AD, you can use any of these accounts.
Once the account has been completed being setup, the Account Administrator will get an email.
All Azure subscriptions can then be created and managed by the Account Administrator and this is all done by using the Azure Account portal http://account.windowsazure.com then by clicking on ‘Account‘ at the top.
From here you will notice you have the option of adding a new subscription.
Or, you can edit an existing subscription. If you click on an existing subscription, by default all Azure Enterprise based subscriptions are named ‘Microsoft Azure Enterprise‘. You have the option to ‘Edit Subscription Details‘.
Here you can rename the Azure subscription or rename the Azure subscription in the Azure portal. Also under ‘Edit Subscription Details‘ you change the Service Administrator to someone else. Remember that with all new Azure subscriptions which are created by the Account Administrator, Azure stamps the Account Administrator as the Service Administrator by default, this is where you change that.
The Azure Hierarchy
And this is the whole thing visually.
A few pointers:
As long as you remember that an Azure directory (also referred to as AAD/Tenant) is totally separate to the Azure subscription.
Imagine you wanted to transfer an Azure Subscription from PAYG to an EA while keeping the existing directory.
You would follow this article, tick Retain this subscription within my Azure AD – however the account owner you are transferring it to, this person would need to exist in the current tenant attached to the incoming subscription otherwise they would get another error The requester has specified that the subscription be retained within their organization. Please contact the requester and ask them to either update their request or add you to their organisation….
Imagine you had your EA set to Microsoft Account mode and you wanted to add a new Accountwhich was a Work or School account.
You would get an error like this: The login information provided is not a valid user. If you believe you have received this message in error, please contact customer support. Simply change the EA to be set for Work or School AccountCross Tenant authentication. If you have Microsoft accounts already setup as other account owners, this won’t break these accounts.
availability group supports a failover environment for a discrete set of user
databases, known as availability databases that fail over together. An
availability group supports a set of primary databases and one to eight sets of
corresponding secondary databases. Secondary databases are not backups.
Continue to back up your databases and their transaction logs on a regular basis.
Availability Group technology is based on Mirroring Technology. Availability
Group is improved version of Mirroring. Availability Group is a HA (High
Availability) and DR (Disaster Recovery) solution.
Prerequisites required to enable SQL Server 2012 Always On Availability Groups
domain user account be created for use by the SQL Server service. This should
just be a regular or domain account
separate accounts for SQL Agent service, SSRS, SSIS & SSRS. Having separate
account is more secure and resilient, since a problem with one account won’t
affect all of the SQL Server Services
SQL & OS Editions, Versions should be at same level on all participating
on availability groups is only supported in Enterprise edition starting from
SQL server 2012 ( except SQL 2016 it supports basic availability group in
to have same collation on all replicas
shared network share on all participating nodes
sure your databases are in Full Recovery Mode, not Simple or Bulk Logged
included in your AlwaysOn group must be user databases. System databases cannot
participate in AlwaysOn Availability Groups.
sure full backups of each of your databases are made prior to installing
cluster shared volume is required for Always on, it can be configured in local
sure you have a seperate NIC’s for public and private communication
NIC is required if you want to isolate always on replication traffic to
sure you have two free IP’s each for windows cluster IP and Always on listener
(Additional Points to consider)
Nodes in cluster (Ex: here 2 servers) must
have drives of the same size and with the same name. There must be the same
paths inside the drives. The reason is that; To get a database to SQL Server
Availability Group, it is more convenient to have the same drives and paths on
the secondary server
The Windows Cluster Account (Windows
Cluster’s name) installed on these 2 servers needs to be granted the Create
Computer Object privilege in the OU (Organization Unit) where these 2 servers
reside in Active Directory.
If you do not give Create Computer
Object permission to Windows Cluster, you will get an error as below when
creating a listener. The WSFC cluster could not bring the Network Name resource
with DNS name ‘XXXXX’ online. The DNS name may have been taken or have a
conflict with existing name services, or the WSFC cluster service may not be
running or may be inaccessible. Use a different DNS name to resolve name
conflicts, or check the WSFC cluster log for more information
file share for backups and replicas: If
you’ve ever setup log shipping you know you have to have a file share on a
server and this is the same for this new feature. Create a file share on one of
the servers and give read/write access to all your service accounts. Once
clustering is setup, 2012 is installed and configured, we can create our first
Availability Group for Always On.
AlwaysOn Availability Groups require a Windows Server Failover Cluster,
we first need to add the Windows Failover Cluster Feature to all the nodes
running the SQL Server instances that we will configure as replicas
We have two node windows failover cluster SQL1 & SQL2 already setup as shown in below screenshot.
you have installed failover cluster we can now proceed with enabling the
AlwaysOn Availability Groups feature in SQL Server 2012. This needs to be done
on all of the SQL Server instances that you will configure as replicas in your
First, we need to enable Always ON Availability Group on two
instances. If you do not activate, you will receive an error as follows.
The AlwaysOn feature must be enabled for the server instance” before you can create an availability group on this instance..
To enable Always On Availability Group, we open SQL Server Configuration Manager with Run As Administrator. In SQL Server Services, we right-click on the instance and click properties.
In the tab that opens, select AlwaysOn High Availability, click Enable AlwaysOn Availability Groups and click OK to activate Always On Availability Group. We need to perform this process on the two servers for Always On Availability Group. This will require a service restart. You can restart your sql server services in a controlled manner.
After activating Always On Availability Group in two servers, we click New Availability Wizard from AlwaysOn High Availability on SSMS as follows.
We need to give a name to AG in the incoming screen. I named it “IlkAG”. We’re moving forward by clicking next.
In the incoming screen, we select the databases that we will include in AG. The status of the databases that are suitable for receiving AG appears in the form of “Meets prerequisities”. We’re choosing TestDB.
On the next screen, in the Replicas section, click Add to connect
to the second instance of Availability Group. Make sure that the instance names
are the same. For example, if your primary server is “Server1\Instance1”, your
secondary server should be “Server2\Instance1”. In other words, the name of the
named instance on both servers is Instance1.
After the connection is complete, you should see a screen as follows.
Since we want to set the AG to be synchronous and automatic failover, we mark the required fields as follows.
For now, we leave Readable Secondary as “No”.
After performing the operations on the Replicas tab, we switch to the Endpoints tab and a screen like the one below is displayed.
To set Always On Availability Group, if you use more than one
instance on the same server, you will need to use a different endpoint port for
each instance. The default endpoint port is 5022.
For example, you have 3 instances. When creating the availability
group for the first instance, the default port is 5022. You must change the
port from the Enpoint URL when you create a availability group for your second
instance. You can use 5023 for the second instance and 5024 for the third instance.
We will use port 5023 for the instance in our example.
Then we go to the Backup Preferences tab and we see a screen like
the following. This screen asks for the preferred instance to get Backups. You
must choose one of them.
If there is
an active secondary server, automated backups are performed from the
secondary server. If there is no active secondary, it is performed from the
automated backups must be performed from the secondary server.
automated backups must be performed from the primary server.
be performed from primary and secondary.
I just select Primary and I’m going to the Listener tab without any further changes.
What is Listener?
There should be minimum 2 instance in Always On Availability
Group architecture. The application must always go to the server where the
database is active. It is the listener that provides this. Listener has a
virtual name and a virtual IP. The application does not know the physical names
and physical IPs of 2 servers in the Always On Availability Group architecture.
The application only knows the listener name or IP.
When the Listener screen opens, we give a virtual name from the
“Listener DNS Name” section as follows.
In the Port section, I give the port information that the
application will connect to the databases on this AG. In Network Mode, select
Static IP and click Add on the bottom and write my virtual IP. Applicants will
know this IP as their database IP.
You can ask your network unit for IP. If you give IP that someone else uses, you will have trouble.
I’m proceeding by clicking Next. In the next screen, it asks us
how to do the synchronization with the secondary database in the first stage.
If we choose Full;
It will automatically take the full backup and log backup of each
database we selected and transfer these backups to the secondary server itself.
This requires a shared folder. Two instance’s SQL server service
accounts must have read and write privileges on this shared folder.
If we choose Join only;
We need to manually take full backup and log backup of each
database we selected and transfer it to the secondary server before passing
If we choose Skip initial data synchronization;
We need to manually take full backup and log backup of each
database we selected and transfer it to the secondary server.
But we can do this later. I’ve never used this option until now. We’re choosing Full and click next.
On the next screen, necessary checks are performed. If there is a problem, you can solve the problem and click Re-run validation. To solve the problem, you can go back by clicking the Back button and correct the setting you made wrong and click next. There was no problem with our installation.
Click Next and then Finish. In my example, everything except the listener was created correctly.
When we click on Error near to ‘Create Availability Group Listener’ testAG ”, we can see the detail of the error as follows.
I usually set the port of the availability group to be the same as
the instance’s port.
In our example, I set a different port to see what would happen if
we set a different port from instance to the availability group.
You can see the error below.
Creating availability group listener resulted in an error.
Although it could not create Listener, it created AG. We can define it as described above by clicking Add Listener from the Availability Group Listeners.
The access information you will give to application developers (the database access information that they write to connection strings) is as follows: TestAG,1435 or “IP address you specify when defining a listener”, 1435
You can also connect via SSMS with this way. After the process is complete, you can see that the database is synchronized.
I wanted to write this article to make it easier for you to choose between SQL Server’s technologies used for HA (High Availability) and DR (Disaster Recovery) for Citrix Virtual Apps & Desktop Site Setup
Briefly, we will compare the technologies listed below.
Always On Failover Cluster
Always ON Availability Group
Always On Failover Cluster
You can use it for HA.
The servers to be included in the Failover Cluster must be in the same windows cluster.
Supports automatic failover. The failover process can occur automatically if the SQL Service stops.
There is no disk redundancy. Because, the database files use a shared disk that can be seen by both servers.
It can be done in Instance level (You cannot failover a database to the other server. All databases in that instance will failover. So it can not be practical for a DBA)
You can not read or write from the secondary databases.
It can be used with Always ON Availability Group, Replication, and Log Shipping.
You can use it as HA or DR solution. If you choose synchronous for nodes in same data center it can be HA Solution and if you choose asynchronous for nodes in different data centers it can be DR Solution.
Its database based. If you have too many databases, you need to do this for all the databases on the instance one by one. But it is more flexible because failover can be done on a database basis.
There is disk redundancy. Each node uses its own disks.
There is automatic failover if you set Witness Server and set it synchronously.
You can not read or write from the Secondary database. But you can read from the snapshot of the secondary database.
It will not be available in later versions of Microsoft SQL Server. Always On Availability Group can be used instead of Mirroring.
Supports automatic page repair. A nice feature for DBAs. Because this feature prevents the database from falling into suspect mode.
Always ON Availability Group
It can be used as HA or DR solution like Database Mirroring.
You can create an availability group by making a group of multiple databases. It is both more flexible and easier to manage than Database Mirroring. For example, an application has 7 databases. You can include these 7 databases into a single availability group. You can manage as you like. Availability Group is an improved version of Database Mirroring.
There is disk redundancy. Each node uses its own disk.
There is automatic failover if you set it synchronously. Does not need Witness server.
You can read from Secondary databases.
Supports automatic page repair. A nice feature for DBAs. Because this feature prevents the database from falling into suspect mode.
With SQL Server 2016, we can now create the Availability Group among different windows clusters.
Replication has many technologies and each offers different features. Therefore it is a little difficult to briefly describe Replication. For details, you should read the articles at the end of the article. Usually not used for HA. I’ve always used it for reporting purposes.
Its a DR solution.
Its databases based.
You can read from secondary database.
There is no automatic failover.
My reasons to choose Always On Availability Group for HA:
It is very easy to manage Always On Availability Group.
You can include more than one database in an Availability Group.
You can use it for both HA and DR.
There is disk redundancy. You can read from the secondary database.
You can failover your availability group to the other server without anyone feeling the interruption.
Because you can group databases, you can get maximum benefit from their resources on 2 servers by running some of your availability groups from the first server and some from the second server.
Hyper-V integration services, are a bundled set of software which, when installed in the virtual machine improves integration between the host server and the virtual machine. Integration services (often called integration components), are services that allow the virtual machine to communicate with the Hyper-V host. Hyper-V Integration Services is a suite of utilities in Microsoft Hyper-V, designed to enhance the performance of a virtual machine’s guest operating system.
In short and general, the integration services are a set of drivers so that the virtual machine can make use of the synthetic devices provisioned to the VM by Hyper-V.
Hyper-V Integration Services optimizes the drivers of the virtual environments to provide end users with the best possible user experience. The suite improves virtual machine management by replacing generic operating system driver files for the mouse, keyboard, video, network and SCSI controller components. It also synchronizes time between the guests and host operating systems and can provide file interoperability and a heartbeat.
Below is the list of Integration Services Version numbers